In our youth, we do not pay much attention to our bodies. It works normally if you don’t have any chronical diseases. But its resources are limited, and over the years we do not expect the best changes, including vision problems. When to expect them and how to fight them? These questions require much research.
One change that is normal for everybody
One of the first signs of aging vision changes is Presbyterian. This is what doctors call the progressive deterioration of the eye ‘s ability to focus on closely spaced objects. In Presbyterian, it becomes difficult to read a fine font, especially in low light. To see the letters, you have to keep the book away, and the tension of the eyes is felt.
Another symptom of Presbyterian is a temporary vision deterioration when shifting a look from a close-up object to a perspective. For example, from the screen of a mobile phone – to a landscape floating in the window of a car. The problem is less noticeable with bright sunlight when the pupil becomes smaller. The reason for such changes is the solidification of the lens due to the natural reduction of the protein level, maintaining its transparency, alpha-crystalline.
The risk group for developing this disease includes people over the age of 35, but usually, such changes trouble those who are over 40. It is impossible to avoid them: they will affect everyone. To a greater extent, vision changes trouble those who read a lot, work on the computer.
A feeling of blurred glass
Other changes appear much later. One of the main and widespread problems is cataracts. It is developing among those who are over 80 years old. It is caused by the blurring of the eye lens due to the accumulation of proteins or pigments, which reduce the transmission of light to the retina at the back of the eye.
Cataracts are developing slowly, sometimes over several decades, affecting one or two eyes. It is accompanied by a violation of both visual acuity and color perception. The world around becomes more faded, objects lose their outlines, and there appears a halo around them. Vision is getting worse in bright light and the dark. In severe cases, it can lead to total blindness: in 50% of cases, it is associated with lens blurring.
High blood pressure as the main reason for blindness
Under high pressure, unlike the first two conditions, glaucoma is a disease. It is caused by damage to the optic nerve and, as a result, loss of vision. Glaucoma is the second most common cause of blindness after cataracts. As a rule, glaucoma is accompanied by an increase in intraocular pressure. In such cases, the disease develops slowly, and its symptoms progress gradually. First, peripheral vision deteriorates, and then the central vision. If there is no treatment, it can lead to blindness.
What other changes reduce our vision?
Aging is a natural process that affects all the organs and tissues of our bodies. And the eyes are not an exception. Some subtle changes include:
Reducing the pupils’ size. The muscles that control the pupils’ size gradually lose their strength, which leads to a narrowing of the pupil and a decrease in its response to light due to aging changes. Symptoms of such changes will be a desire to increase the illumination when reading, although, at the age of 20, almost 3 times less light was required for comfortable reading.
Dry eyes. There is a decrease in tear production with aging, which is especially typical for women during menopause. Discomfort, pain, redness and dry eyes are characteristic of a “dry eye” syndrome.
Narrowing of the vision field. A gradual loss of peripheral vision reaches 1-3 degrees per decade of life, so after 70 years, these values can be significant. This symptom is especially important for older drivers because it increases the risk of car accidents.
Reducing contrast and color vision. There is a decrease in the number of retinal cells responsible for color perception, which is manifested by a decrease in the brightness and contrast of colors, and the ability to distinguish between shades and tones decreases. People, whose profession is related to color perception – design, painting, and photography can react especially strongly to this.
If these symptoms occur, you should contact your doctor to find out the exact cause.
A modern problem that influences our eyes
NY Post published an article where researchers from the University of Toledo claimed that blue light from smartphones and tablets cause the production of poisonous molecules. Blue light has very short waves. They reach the fundus partially, and because of it, we see the image less clearly and strain our eyes. An excess of blue color increases intraocular pressure, eyes get tired and hurt.
Features of blue light affect negatively the eye retina which leads to blindness. Under the influence of blue light, there forms a pigment on the retina that destroys healthy cells and causes retinal degeneration. In this case, eye diseases that were spread among the elderly come into the lives of very young people.
The hormone melatonin is responsible for sleep. Its production is decreasing when we sit with our faces to the screen in the darkness. The body reacts to light easily: as soon as it gets dark, it is going to fall asleep. Blue light from the screen interferes with the production of melatonin, and as a result, we cannot sleep.
The blue light of gadgets does not cause DNA mutations itself, and therefore, skin cancer, as an excess of ultraviolet light. But radiation from screens impairs the ability of cells to protect themselves from UV rays, and the skin becomes more vulnerable to their attack.
Harmful blue light is emitted not only by computer and smartphone screens. Also, some types of lamps, 3D glasses, and helmets, and cameras, e-books with lighting produce it. This does not mean that you need to be afraid of all digital technology. The main thing is to use it wisely and do not disdain protective measures.
It is possible to lead a life and save your eyes healthy. But aging processes can’t be stopped in the body. We can’t prevent them, but we can help our body to stay healthy and live longer. You should control the time you spend before the screens of gadgets and watching TV. The less time you will spend there, the fewer problems you will have by the age of 40.